As we have previously emphasized, these two aspects are independent of each other. To appreciate the value of logical tools, it is important to have realistic expectations about their use. One of the main reasons for emphasizing the basic characteristics of inductive and deductive arguments is to make clear what can be expected of them.
It would be a serious error to confuse the questions, and it would be at least as serious to confuse the answers. In order to answer this question, the inference must be stated; when it is stated, it becomes an argument.
The question of justification can be answered only in terms of observations, experiments, and arguments -- in short, the justification depends upon evidence for the theory and not upon the psychological factors which made the theory occur to Newton in the first place.
When an argument has been found, the premises and conclusion must be identified. The main difference lies in the fact that an argument is a linguistic entity, a group of statements; an inference is not. The conclusion of an inference is an opinion, belief, or some such thing.
Examples a and b illustrate clearly the basic properties of inductive and deductive arguments and the important differences between them. Making the implicit content of the axioms and postulates explicit is genuinely illuminating.
They indicate that this statement follows necessarily i. Even though every inductive argument can be made into a deductive argument by the addition of premises, the required premises are often statements whose truth is very doubtful.
All horses are mammals. An argument either qualifies fully as a correct deduction or fails completely; there are no degrees of deductive validity. The main focus was to help the reader to be able to identify an argument. Both arguments and inferences involve evidence and conclusions standing in relation to each other.
Logic cannot provide rules for making inferences -- such matters pertain to discovery. To remedy the situation, he attempted to found his philosophical system upon indubitable truths and derive a variety of far-reaching consequences from them.
The law itself refers to the position of the planet, whether it is observed or not. Logic provides tools for the analysis of discourse; such analysis is indispensable to intelligent expression of our own views and the clear understanding of the claims of others.
Deductive and inductive arguments fulfill different functions. The first premise says that all mammals have hearts, and that includes all horses according to the second premise. But logic is not psychology; it does not attempt to describe or explain the mental processes that occur when people infer, think, or reason.
Here are correct examples. This change is imperceptible, but is, however, of the last consequence.
Making an inference is a psychological activity; it consists of drawing a conclusion from evidence, of arriving at certain opinions or beliefs on the basis of others.
Showing that a justification is inadequate, on either of these grounds, does not show that the conclusion is false. There may be another, adequate justification for the same conclusion.The scope of logic. Wesley C. Salmon. In Steven M. Cahn (ed.), Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology.
Oxford University Press () Abstract This article has Author: Wesley C. Salmon. The Scope of Logic Wesley C. Salmon. Improving Your Thinking Stephen F. Barker. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Steven M.
Cahn. Thinking to Some Purpose jimmyhogg.com Stebbing. Pushover Arguments Scott F. Aikin and Robert B. Talisse. Fixing Belief Morris R. Cohen and Ernest Nagel. вЂњThe Scope of LogicвЂќ, by Wesley C.
Salmon There were several points made by Salmon. The main focus was to help the reader to be able to identify an argument/5(1). Logic (Foundations of Philosophy) [Wesley C.
Salmon] on jimmyhogg.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Reviews the scope, nature, and applications of the philosophical discipline, focusing on methods for distinguishing between valid and fallacious arguments and inferences/5(33).
Logic Wesley C. Salmon CONTENTS. Preface. 1 The Scope of Logic; Argument; Inference; Discovery and Justification.
The Scope of Logic -Salmon study guide by Jouts includes 7 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades.Download